The Çankırı Basin is one of the largest Cenozoic basins in Central Anatolia, Turkey and contains possible economic hydrocarbon and evaporite reserves. Gypsum is the dominant mineral in the evaporite-bearing Pliocene deposits of the Çankırı Basin. In claystones, the abundance of smectite, dolomite, illite/mica and chlorite in association with minor amounts of mixed-layer chlorite-smectite, mica-vermiculite, amphibole, serpentine, quartz and feldspar together indicate an alkaline environment. Minor kaolinite is also present in some clay samples. Smectite is both detrital and authigenic. Palynological analysis revealed the existence of a mixed forest (Pinus, Cathaya, Tsuga, Cedrus, Abies, Quercus, Ulmus, Juglans, Pterocarya, Acer, Carya, Carpinus, Fagus) dominated by Pinus with a widespread herbaceous understory (Poaceae) interspersed sparsely with open areas occupied by Asteraceae. This flora reflects warm-temperate and humid climatic condition. δ13C analyses have shown that the vegetation was dominated by C3 plants.