In this study, natural bentonite was modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) bromide to obtain organobentonite (HDTMA-bentonite). Bentonite and HDTMA-bentonite were then characterized using XRD, XRF, SEM, FT-IR, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, elemental analysis and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area techniques. The HDTMA+ cation was found to be located on the surface and enters the interlayer spaces of smectite according to the XRD and SEM results. FT-IR spectra indicated the existence of HDTMA functional groups on the bentonite surface. The BET surface area significantly decreased after the modification due to the coverage of the pores of natural bentonite. After the characterization, the adsorption of a textile dye, Reactive Blue 19 (RB19), onto bentonite and HDTMA-bentonite was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of HDTMA-bentonite for RB19 was 502 mg g–1 at 20°C. The adsorption process followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and it was exothermic and physical in nature.