Different types of dioctahedral smectites (nontronite, beidellite, montmorillonite) were investigated by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Starting with the chemical composition of the octahedral sheet, the occupancies within the octahedral sheet were adjusted by computer simulations to fit the occupancies derived from FTIR. For both cis-and trans-vacant smectites the AlAl and FeFe pairs are mainly randomly distributed but seem to be aligned along OH-bonded directions. Relative to the chemical composition, AlFe pairs are enriched in cis-vacant smectites and depleted in nontronites. This behaviour can be explained by the necessity to dehydrate and hydrolyse cations when they become incorporated into the structure during crystal growth. The first and second hydrolysis steps are necessary for incorporating cations in trans-vacant smectites, whereas only the first hydrolysis step is necessary for cis-vacant smectites. The corresponding difference in energy may explain why mostly cis-vacant smectites occur in low-temperature environments.

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