Abstract

The genesis of the products of the alteration of acid pyroclastic material is discussed and interpreted on the basis of the distribution, sedimentation conditions, post-sedimentation activity, mineral and chemical compositions of pyroclastic deposits in Bulgaria and Slovakia.

It is found that the disordered nonequilibrium nature of the volcanic glass induces a diagenetic devitrification of the tuffs and formation of clinoptilolitic, adularia-cristobalite and bentonite rocks. With increasing temperature, the volcanic glass tends forward a stable state through a series of zeolite mineral associations: clinoptilolite-mordenite-analcime-feldspar. The change in mineral composition of this series of rocks occurs without a change in the chemical composition of the rocks, which could be explained by the closed nature of zeolite systems. The formation of bentonites is associated with the removal of alkaline ions under diagenetic conditions, while the formation of halloysite rocks is caused by hydrothermal activity.

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