Abstract

The morphological and structural changes in smectite caused by hexadecyl-trimethylammonium (HDTMA) treatment were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The HDTMA-exchanged smectite shows not only morphological features such as irregular, wavy surface with curled edges, but also structural features such as large d-spacings (20–26 Å) and lattice distortions. The surface morphological heterogeneity is assumed to be related to the inhomogeneous intercalation of HDTMA cations into the interlayer of smectite.

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