The clay mineral assemblages of the Tithonian and Berriasian sediments (Tera and Oncala Groups) in the eastern part of the Cameros basin are investigated at seven localities. The lowest-grade assemblage, located on the southern border of the basin, contains calcite + quartz + hematite + kaolinite + mixed-layer illite-smectite (R = 1, 65–85% illite layers) ± discrete illite (IC = 0.5–0.65Δ°2𝛉). Systematic increases in the illite and chlorite crystallinities suggest increasing metamorphic grade from the northwest part of the basin to the southeast. This trend does not follow the pattern previously described for the overlying late Berriasian–early Aptian sediments (Urbión and Enciso Groups), which exhibit a higher metamorphic grade. This may result from local variations in sedimentary facies, as well as the circulation of hot migratory fluids. Tertiary compression occurring long after the main metamorphic event is considered to be responsible for the enhanced illite and chlorite crystallinities measured in the SE extreme of the basin.