Raman microscopy of the kaolinite polymorphs was used to study single crystals and bundles of aligned crystals of kaolinite. The spectra of the hydroxyl stretching region were both sample and orientation dependent. Kaolinites can be classified into two groups according to the ratio of the intensities of the 3685 and 3695 cm (super -1) bands. No relationship was found between the d-spacing and the crystal domain size measurement from the 001 reflection and the Raman spectral intensities indicating the Raman spectra are independent of d-spacing and crystallinity. However, a relationship of the crystallinity in the a-b direction and intensities of the 3685 and 3695 cm (super -1) bands indicate that the relative position of one layer to the other determines the position of the inner surface hydroxyl groups and the hydrogen bonding with the oxygen of the opposite layer. A new hypothesis based on symmetric and non-symmetric hydrogen bonding of the inner surface hydroxyl groups is proposed to explain the two inner surface hydroxyl bands centred at 3685 and 3695 cm (super -1) . The bands at 3670 and 3650 cm (super -1) are described in terms of the out-of-phase vibrations of the in-phase vibrations at 3695 and 3685 cm (super -1) .