Abstract

For mixed-layer clay fractions from the North Sea and Denmark, X-ray diffractograms have been recorded for specimens saturated with Mg, Ca, Na and NH 4 , both airdry and intercalated with ethylene glycol, and the patterns have been computer-simulated with a multicomponent program. The mixed-layer fractions consist of an illite-smectite-vermiculite (I-S-V) phase constituting approximately 90% of the fraction and a kaolinite-illite-vermiculite (K-I-V) phase. For each I-S-V, the degree of swelling in swelling interlayers depends on both interlayer cation and glycolation, whereas the amount of non-swelling illite and swelling interlayers and the interstratification parameters are constant. Based on structural characteristics and the degree of diagenetic transformation, the samples investigated can be divided into three groups. The I-S-V of group one is predominantly detrital and has 0.69-0.73 illite. 0.26-0.20 smectite and 0.04-0.07 vermiculite interlayers, the illite, smectite and vermiculite interlayers being segregated. The I-S-V of group two has been diagenetically transformed and has 0.80 illite, 0.12 smectite and 0.08 vermiculite interlayers, the vermiculite interlayers being segregated whereas the illite and smectite have the maximum ordering possible for R = 1. The I-S-V of group three has been further transformed during diagenesis and has 0.84 illite, 0.08 smectite and 0.08 vermiculite interlayers. Statistical calculations demonstrate that the I-S-V transformation can be described as a single interlayer transformation (SIT) within the crystallites.

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