Abstract

A model of island volcanism is presented in which rocks are referred to (1) a "syn-volcanic" constructional phase represented by rocks of four penecontemporaneous facies—vent, alluvial, marine, and plutonic—whose interrelationships are discussed and (2) a "post-volcanic" destructional phase of erosion and sedimentation accompanied by isostatic adjustment resulting in the spreading of an apron of volcanic sediments around a slowly rising and eroding island core.The late Precambrian rocks of the eastern part of the Avalon Peninsula, southeasternmost Newfoundland, are shown to fit this model rather closely, both petrographically and in their distribution and field relationships. The Harbour Main Group of volcanic rocks, the Conception Group of marine volcanic sediments and tuffs, and the Holyrood Plutonic Series, dated at 574 ± 11 m.y., were all formed during the syn-volcanic constructional phase. Their apparently conflicting age relationships can be reconciled to the view that they are penecontemporaneous facies. The Cabot and Hodgewater Groups of marine and alluvial volcanic sediments were formed during the post-volcanic destructional phase. Apart from vertical crustal movements, only minor diastrophic deformation appears to have occurred during these two phases.This model of volcanic island environment may help in interpreting the geology of several other belts in eastern and central Newfoundland comprising late Precambrian and Paleozoic volcanic rocks and sediments.

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