Deep sea carbonate lithification and the interbedding of carbonate and ferromanganese are common processes on oceanic ridges and seamounts. Temperature and salinity changes caused by climatic fluctuations or heat emanations and manganese substitution for calcium in the calcite lattice along these ridges are believed to be responsible for these inorganic processes. Lithification and solution of the carbonate take place at the sediment–water interface and can occur in ocean depths of at least 3 000 m.

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