Abstract

Deep seismic sounding of the earth's crust has been carried out between latitudes 49°30′ N and 51°30′ N, from longitude 93 °W to longitude 96 °W, by means of a refraction survey, using energy from underwater explosions. A two-layer crust was found, with velocities uniform both laterally and vertically within the layers. Velocities found were: Pg = 6.05 ± 0.05 km/s; Sg = 3.46 ± 0.05 km/s; P* = 6.85 ± 0.05 km/s; S* = 4.00 ± 0.05 km/s; Pn = 7.92 km/s; Sn = 4.60 ± 0.08 km/s. The discontinuity separating the crustal layers (called the Intermediate discontinuity) is believed to be similar to the Conrad discontinuity. Contour maps of depths to this discontinuity and the Mohorovicic discontinuity were produced. Average depths (below surface) are: Intermediate = 18.25 km; Mohorovicic = 34.28 km. Average surface elevation is 0.33 km. Velocity averaged vertically through the crust has a mean value over the area of 6.36 km/s. Structures on the discontinuities are related to at least one major surface geological feature. A form of the time-term method called the station-pair method was designed during the survey and is recommended for the interpretation of seismic crustal refraction surveys.

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