In this study, we undertook zircon U–Pb dating and Hf isotopic and whole-rock geochemical analysis of Mesozoic granites from the Zhalantun and Arxan areas of the Great Xing’an Range, northeastern China. Zircon U–Pb dating of four samples indicates they formed in the Early Cretaceous (ca. 140.7–130.0 Ma). Geochemically, the samples have high silica (74.00–77.29 wt.%) and total alkali (8.52–8.90 wt.%) and low CaO (0.21–0.71 wt.%), MgO (0.06–0.48 wt.%), and P2O5 (0.01–0.06 wt.%) contents and exhibit the weakly peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.98–1.06) and high-K calc-alkaline characteristics, with highly differentiated I-type granite affinities (differentiation index = 93.19–96.93). The studied granites are enriched in light rare earth and large ion lithophile elements and depleted in heavy rare earth and high field strength elements. Their zircon εHf(t) values are mainly positive (+2.49 to +11.64) and yield two-stage Hf model ages of 1023–445 Ma. The geochemical and isotopic data indicate they might have been derived from the partial melting of medium- to high-K basaltic crust material during the Mesoproterozoic to Phanerozoic. They underwent fractional crystallization in the magma evolution process, and K-feldspar and plagioclase were the major crystallization phases. Combined with the temporal–spatial migration of the Mesozoic magmatic events in the whole northeastern China, we propose that the generation of Early Cretaceous highly differentiated I-type granites in the central Great Xing’an Range was associated with the delamination effect caused by the roll-back of the Paleo-Pacific plate. graphic

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