The hypothesis that Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM) formed between converging ice streams requires critical testing. Available data (e.g., digital elevation models, maps, seismic profiles, continuous cores, and pit exposures) are inconsistent with the converging ice stream hypothesis. Combined analysis of landform and subsurface data permits testing the ORM area stratigraphic sequence and sedimentary origin. Stratigraphic data indicate that drumlinized Newmarket Till, incised by north–south-oriented (tunnel) valleys, extends beneath ORM. Thus, streamlining on Newmarket Till is older than ORM and has no direct bearing on its formation. The north–south-trending valleys truncate streamlined Newmarket Till, extend to bedrock, have inset eskers, and occur beneath ORM. Hence, these valleys are older than ORM and have a subglacial rather than a proglacial origin. Overlying the mega-scale lineations and incised channels are topographically elevated (>300 m a.s.l.), ORM glaciofluvial–glaciolacustrine sequences. Its east to west paleoflow trend indicates an east–west-oriented hydraulic gradient, orthogonal to expected gradients of proposed north-south converging ice streams. The exclusive presence of ORM meltwater sediments, with rare deformation, is incompatible with a converging ice stream, deforming-bed hypothesis. Halton sediment grades upward from stratified sand (ORM) to interbedded diamicton and glaciolacustrine sediment, rather than deformation till. Halton sediment overlies ORM and consequently the proposed Halton ice streaming is younger than the moraine. Halton Till is present in few of the predicted ice stream areas, and where Halton Till is present, it has no mega-scale lineations. In sum, the weight of evidence unequivocally argues against a converging ice-stream process model for the ORM.

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