Geodynamic evolution in the late Paleozoic is significant for understanding the final amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). No consensus has yet been reached regarding the late Paleozoic geodynamic evolution of the northern Great Xing’an Range (GXR) in northeastern China, the eastern CAOB. Furthermore, late Paleozoic syenogranite–diabase dyke association is present in the Xiaokele area in northern GXR. It provides an important opportunity to understand the nature of magmatism and the geodynamic evolution during this period. This paper presents new zircon U–Pb ages, zircon Hf isotopic compositions, and geochemical data of whole rocks for Xiaokele syenogranite and diabase. Zircon U–Pb dating suggests that the Xiaokele syenogranite (292.5 ± 0.9 Ma) and diabase (298.3 ± 1.5 Ma) were emplaced during the early Permian. The Xiaokele syenogranites have high SiO2 contents, low MgO contents, and enriched zircon εHf(t) values, suggesting that their primary magma was generated by the partial melting of the juvenile crustal material. The Xiaokele diabases have low SiO2 contents, high MgO contents, are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements, depleted in high-field-strength elements, and exhibit enriched zircon εHf(t) values. They derived from a lithospheric mantle source that had previously been metasomatized by slab-derived fluids. Combined with previous research results, we believe that the continent–continent collision between the Xing’an and Songliao blocks occurred during the late early Carboniferous – early late Carboniferous (330–310 Ma), and the two blocks were transformed into a post-collisional extensional setting during the latest Carboniferous – early Permian.

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