Polypleuraspis Poulsen, 1927, originally established on the basis of a single trilobite pygidium from the Cape Wood Formation of Inglefield Land, northwestern Greenland, is redescribed on the basis of material from additional occurrences in the Cape Wood and Telt Bugt formations exposed around Kane Basin in Ellesmere Island (Nunavut) and northern and northwestern Greenland. Polypleuraspis occurs together with Glossopleura Poulsen, 1927 in the Glossopleura walcotti Poulsen, 1927 Biozone of the Delamaran Stage of North American (Laurentian) usage, in middle Cambrian strata (Miaolingian Series) of the Wuliuan Stage. The type species, Polypleuraspis solitaria Poulsen, 1927, is compared with Polypleuraspis insignis Rasetti, 1951 from the Stephen Formation (Burgess Shale Formation) of British Columbia and to a new species from the Telt Bugt Formation of Daugaard-Jensen Land: Polypleuraspis glacialis sp. nov. Polypleuraspis cooperi Robison and Babcock, 2011, from the Spence Shale of Utah of similar age, is assigned to Polypleuraspidella gen. nov.

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