This study presents a long-term, multi-proxy reconstruction of the Asian southwest monsoon during the Tortonian to Piacenzian, based on a 4.78 Ma record from Coastal Makran, northwestern Gulf of Oman, southeast Iran. The integration of humidity proxies (clay minerals, Th/K, volume magnetic susceptibility, and grain size analysis), marine redox sensitivity (Th/U), total organic matter, carbonate content, 87Sr/86Sr ratio, and spectral gamma-ray data conducted here provide valuable information that fill the existing gap in marine palaeoclimate records. The results show that a strong winter monsoon condition associated with relatively low precipitation and subsequently low physical and chemical weathering dominated the region during late Tortonian – late Messinian (7.65–5.83 Ma). However, a few episodes of intense physical and chemical weathering related to high precipitation are observed during this period (6.23–6.01 Ma), which is consistent with increased organic matter input from continental reservoirs to the oceans. In addition, the data indicate that from the latest Messinian (5.82–5.33 Ma) to Zanclean–Piacenzian (5.33–2.87 Ma), a strong summer monsoon accompanied by a relatively wetter condition and higher physical and chemical weathering resulted in a high detrital input into the basin. This higher weathering period is associated with the highest rate of Himalayan uplift, causing enhanced precipitation. Wavelet analysis of spectral gamma-ray data revealed notable periodicities at 750 Ka and 1.7 Ma, with significant periodicities centered around 5.75–6.03 Ma over the latest Messinian – Zanclean. Comparison with palaeoclimate records from other sites indicates a teleconnection with respect to precipitation, weathering, and productivity, especially during the Messinian–Zanclean transition.

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