We studied newly found high Nb–Ta alkaline rhyolites in the northern volcanic belt of the Great Xing’an Range, China. The LA–ICP–MS U–Pb weighted mean age is 114.07 ± 0.55 Ma, indicating that the rocks formed during the late Early Cretaceous and were the product of the late eruption of a Mesozoic volcano. The major element contents are characterized by high Si, rich K, low Fe, and poor Ca and Mg. In the total alkaline–silicon diagram, the sample points are in the alkaline rhyolite region. Meanwhile, rare earth elements show obvious Ce/Ce* positive anomalies and Eu/Eu* negative anomalies. In addition, trace elements are characterized by high Nb, Ta, and Yb, and low Sr. The two-stage Nd isotopic model age T2DM of the depleted mantle is between 799–813 Ma, indicating that the diagenetic material originated from the depleted mantle or partial melting of newly formed young crustal materials. The source rocks melted at a relative shallow depth (<30 km), under lower pressure (<0.5 Gpa) and high oxygen fugacity; moreover, the residues in the source region were Ca-rich mafic plagioclase + amphibole + orthopyroxene. In the Nb–Y–3Ga and Nb–Y–Ce diagrams, the sample points are in the A1 type region. It can be concluded that the mantle-derived basaltic magma underplated and supplied the heat sources for partial melting of the metamorphic crustal rocks in an intraplate extensional tectonic environment related to a rift, mantle plume, and hot spot.

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