Pollen samples belonging to 54 plant taxa from 32 intervals in a 59 m thick lacustrine sequence in the Harami open pit lignite mine in Konya Province, Turkey, were studied to evaluate early Miocene (Aquitanian) changes in vegetation, climate, and environments in Central Anatolia. The regional vegetation consisted of forests, whose composition changed through time. An abundance of sub-tropical and warm-temperate, mainly deciduous trees in the lower part of Harami section indicates a warm and humid climate in the region during the earliest Miocene. A trend towards cooler and drier conditions, driven by a combination of regional and local factors, is reflected by the sequential establishment of two kinds of coniferous forests: a cedar (Cedrus) dominated forest in the middle part of the section, followed by a mixed cedar and pine (Pinus) forest in the upper part of the section. The high percentages of Cedrus in the middle and upper portions of the Harami section suggest that high-elevation coniferous forests were growing around mountain ranges. Although cedars have been a prominent part of the Anatolian flora since at least the early Miocene, in historical times their geographical range throughout the Mediterranean has been dramatically reduced by human activities.

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