Geological characteristics and geochemical analyses are reported for the early Carboniferous pillow basalt in the Huilvshan region (west Junggar, Northwest China), with the aim to indicate its petrogenesis, magma source characteristics, and tectonic implication. This pillow basalt consists of clinopyroxene and plagioclase with trace amounts of magnetite, apatite, and chromian spinel. It is tholeiitic in composition with low concentrations of Na2O + K2O (1.52–4.74 wt.%). Similar to the N-MORB, the samples of this pillow basalt have nearly flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 0.87–1.47) with insignificant Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.84–1.18), and show no obvious enrichments of LILEs and insignificant depletions in HFSEs. Petrology and geochemical characteristics suggest that this pillow basalt is the product of MORB-like magma derived from a depleted mantle corresponding to ≤4% partial melting of spinel lherzolite. SIMS analysis of the zircons separated from tuff interlayered with basalt gives a weighted average U–Pb age of 328 ± 3 Ma (MSWD = 1.4), which represents the magma eruption time in the Huilvshan region. From these observations, in combination with the previous work, we conclude that an extensional tectonic regime dominated the tectonic activity of west Junggar during early Carboniferous.

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