The initiation of widespread penetrative bioturbation in the earliest Phanerozoic is regarded as such a significant geobiological event that the boundary between Ediacaran and Cambrian strata is defined by the appearance of diagnostic trace fossils. While ichnofabric analyses have yielded differing interpretations of the impact of Fortunian bioturbation, the disruption of sediments previously sealed by microbial mats is likely to have effected at least local changes in carbon and sulfur cycling. To assess the geochemical effects of penetrative bioturbation, we conducted a high resolution chemostratigraphic analysis of the siliciclastic-dominated basal Cambrian Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP; Chapel Island Formation, Newfoundland, Canada). A positive δ13C excursion in organic matter starts at the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary and returns to stably depleted values near the top of member 2, while the δ13C of carbonate carbon increases from strongly depleted values toward seawater values beginning near the top of member 2. Pyrite sulfur coincidently undergoes significant 34S depletion at the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary. These isotope anomalies most likely reflect progressive ventilation and oxygenation of shallow sediments as a consequence of bioturbation. In this interpretation, sediment ventilation in the earliest Cambrian may have spurred a temporary increase in microbial sulfate reduction and benthic sulfur cycling under low-oxygen conditions. In the late Fortunian, local carbon cycling appears to have stabilized as reductants were depleted and more oxygenated conditions predominated in the shallow substrate. Overall, these data attest to the geochemical significance of the initiation of sediment ventilation by animals at the dawn of the Phanerozoic.
Effects of bioturbation on carbon and sulfur cycling across the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition at the GSSP in Newfoundland, Canada1
Corresponding author: Kalev G. Hantsoo (email: email@example.com).
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Kalev G. Hantsoo, Alan J. Kaufman, Huan Cui, Rebecca E. Plummer, Guy M. Narbonne; Effects of bioturbation on carbon and sulfur cycling across the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition at the GSSP in Newfoundland, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences ; 55 (11): 1240–1252. doi: https://doi.org/10.1139/cjes-2017-0274
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