The Rangeomorpha are the oldest, most diverse, and most disparate clade of Ediacaran macrofossils. Easily identifiable by their self-similar branching pattern, they occupied epibenthic niche space ranging from the lowest-tiered and recumbent taxa up to metre-long upright fronds. A phylogenetic analysis using the largest and most complete character set known for this group scored for 14 separate taxa was undertaken to resolve their internal relationships and test previous hypotheses of their evolutionary and ecological history. Owing to the lack of consensus on the relationship amongst Ediacaran clades, several permutations with different potential outgroup taxa were performed. Across these analyses, there is a strong signal for an upright frondose ancestral state for this clade, likely displaying primary branches that were double-sided, nonrotated, with the lower-tiered and recumbent forms being derived members of a single subclade. This has implications on the life history reconstruction as well as taxonomic implications for this clade and the origins of large multicellular life in the late Ediacaran.

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