Latest Devonian (∼365–358 Ma) A-type granites in the Cobequid Highlands host complex sequences of rare-earth element (REE) and other hydrothermal minerals. The West Moose River pluton is the only pluton truncated and brittly deformed by the mid-Carboniferous (∼327 Ma) strike-slip Minas Fault Zone during the Alleghanian orogeny. Fractures in the granite provide a record of several deformational and hydrothermal events with distinct mineral assemblages. Early sodic alteration produced albitization of feldspar, and riebeckite and tourmaline veins. The δ18O of albite and albitized granite (5‰–6‰) is similar to other regional granites, suggesting a mantle source of albitizing fluids. Nearby halite deposits are younger and thus not a source of Na. Early chlorite veins were followed by potassic alteration and hydrothermal biotite, and by diabase and lamprophyre dyke emplacement. Euhedral magnetite occupies new cross-cutting fractures and vugs, correlated with regional iron oxide – carbonate – sulphide mineralization following initiation of the Minas Fault Zone. This change in stress field resulted in widespread fracturing of the granite, greatly increasing its permeability. Magnetite is postdated by titania minerals with hydrothermal REE minerals in dissolution voids. The spatial variation in REE mineral types indicates variable availability of F, Cl, and CO2 in mineralizing fluids derived from groundwater. REE mineralization is rare in veins in country rock, demonstrating local plutonic sources of REEs. The emplacement of REE minerals was complex in time and space and was a consequence of pervasive microfracturing of the granite.

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