Outcrop and continuous core descriptions, high-resolution seismic profiling, and downhole geophysical data are integrated with detailed mapping to update sedimentary and stratigraphic frameworks for Halton sediment, a complex mud-rich lithofacies succession. Halton sediment has a gradational transition from underlying Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM) sediment and can abruptly overlie Newmarket Till. Halton strata thin and fine upwards from ORM sand and gravel to graded sand, silt, and clay rhythmites, with muddy diamicton and sand and gravel interbeds. These strata fill basin lows and drape ORM sediment lobes and Newmarket Till drumlins. These distinct sedimentary units are here informally referred to as Halton formation. Formal Halton Till is a proposed subunit of Halton formation, a clay-rich diamicton mapped from Niagara Peninsula to ORM and eastward. Halton Till has traditionally been inferred to represent a late, climatically induced readvance of grounded ice from Lake Ontario basin, which deposited drumlinized till. Halton sedimentary architecture and facies are interpreted as deposition in an ice-marginal or subglacial lake bounded by Niagara Escarpment, ORM, and grounding line oscillation of a semi-buoyant ice shelf or ice lid over Lake Ontario. Large volumes of transported mud are distal equivalents of ORM high-energy gravelly sand deposits to the east. Glaciolacustrine sedimentation is indicated by mud-rich texture and laminations. Clay–silt rhythmites, diamicton interbeds, and intraclasts indicate ponding, debris flow, and periodic ice loading. Halton depositional model may apply to other muddy diamictons in Great Lakes basins. Halton formation facies are not compatible with proposed grounded ice stream events in Lake Ontario basin.

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