Based on the geomagnetic field model NGDC-720-V3 (National Geophysical Data Center), the distribution of crustal magnetic anomalies and the Curie surface beneath Tarim Basin, China, and its adjacent area were investigated. The results show that the spatial distribution of the magnetic anomalies in Tarim Basin coincides with the regional tectonic structure, i.e., a basin sandwiched between mountain ranges. Shallow parts of the Curie surface are located in uplifted zones of the basin and correspond well to high values of heat flow. In contrast, deep parts of the Curie surface, having low values of heat flow, are distributed along the depression zones of the basin. The Curie point depth is consistent with the measured heat flow value, with a correlation coefficient of 0.65.