Abstract

The Turgeon deposit is a mafic-type, Cu–Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit. It is hosted by Middle Ordovician pillow basalts of the Devereaux Formation of the Fournier Group within the Elmtree-Belledune inlier, near the Bathurst Mining Camp (BMC) in northern New Brunswick, Canada. The Turgeon deposit consists of two Cu–Zn massive sulfide lenses (“100m Zn”, “48-49”) composed of pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite, which are underlain by chalcopyrite–pyrite stockwork veins. Pyrite is overprinted and replaced by chalcopyrite in the stockwork and vent complex sulfide facies, where both minerals are enriched in Se and Co relative to pyrite and chalcopyrite in the massive pyrite and breccia sulfide facies. In, Se, and Co display a positive covariation with Cu, whereas Zn displays a positive covariation with Cd. Trace element geochemistry indicates that the host rocks are primarily tholeiitic basalts and andesites that have signatures between that of mid-ocean ridge basalt and island-arc tholeiite. The hanging wall rhyolite plots as an ocean ridge rhyolite and is geochemically similar to VMS-bearing FIIIa-type rhyolites. Hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages in the footwall basalts proximal to mineralization are dominantly chlorite ± quartz in the stockwork zone, which is characterized by compositional gains in Fe and Mg and losses in Na and Ca. The chlorite-altered basalts and andesites have undergone up to 35% mass loss. Stockwork chlorite is an Fe-rich chamosite, whereas chlorite in the massive sulfides is a Mg-rich clinochlore. Chlorite geothermometry yields temperatures of 329–361 °C for chamosite and 246–286 °C for clinochlore. Sulfides at Turgeon have an average δ34SCDT of +6.9‰ (range: +5.8‰ to +10‰), indicating that sulfur was mostly derived from thermochemical reduction of Ordovician seawater sulfate. The Turgeon VMS deposit differs from those of the BMC, which is a reflection of their different tectonic settings; but it is similar to other mafic-type VMS deposits, such as the Betts Cove, Tilt Cove, and Rambler VMS deposits in Newfoundland, Canada.

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