Abstract

A bear third metatarsal was discovered in Champlain Sea deposits at the Saint-Nicolas site, Quebec. It is identified morphologically probably as a brown bear (Ursus arctos) based on the combination of morphology and ancient DNA. It is the first evidence of bears from Champlain Sea deposits. This bone was radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to 9880 ± 35 BP (radiocarbon years BP, taken as 1950) — close to the end of the Champlain Sea phase in eastern North America. The specimen is considered in relation to other North American Quaternary brown bear remains, the dispersal history of the species, and the known Champlain Sea fauna from Saint-Nicolas, as well as stratigraphy at the site and paleoenvironment. Four major conclusions summarize the paper.

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