Abstract

Pandemonium hibernalis sp. nov., from a middle? Puercan (earliest Paleocene) locality in the upper Scollard Formation, Wintering Hills, southern Alberta, represents the second discovered occurrence of the enigmatic plesiadapiform primate Pandemonium Van Valen and the first from Canada. The holotype of Pandemonium hibernalis is the only known specimen of Pandemonium documented by multiple teeth from a single individual. Pandemonium hibernalis closely resembles the type species Pandemonium dis from Purgatory Hill, middle–late Puercan, Tullock Formation, Montana, but differs in having wider, more bunodont lower molar crowns and a more expanded posterior talonid lobe of m3, specializations suggesting enhanced capacity for crushing and grinding of soft food materials during mastication. Pandemonium hibernalis joins other recent discoveries in Alberta and elsewhere in the North American Western Interior in documenting a moderate radiation of basal plesiadapiforms that evolved unexpectedly early during primate evolution.

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