Radiocarbon dates, rhythmite occurrences, mineralogy, grain size, and stable isotopic compositions of detrital calcite obtained for four sediment cores from Lake Superior have been used to produce a chronology for these fine-grained deposits over the last ∼10 500 cal BP (calibrated years before A.D. 1950). Most of the rhythmites have been interpreted as annual laminations (varves) based on systematic variations in the carbonate content of rhythmite couplets and correlation of the rhythmite packages with varve sequences reported previously for Lake Superior sediments. Glacial sediments in these cores, which consist of red and grey clay, range in age from ∼10 500 to 8800–8700 cal BP. Distinctive carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of allochthonous calcite in the red versus grey glacial clays point to different sources for this detritus. Final termination of glacial meltwater input into the Lake Superior Basin occurred between 9000 and 8700 cal BP. The significant decrease in sediment carbonate content over this time is a convenient marker for the start of postglacial sedimentation across the Lake Superior Basin.