A major zone of deformation affects Early Carboniferous rocks in the southern part of the Maritimes Basin of Nova Scotia, close to the boundary between the Avalon and Meguma terranes of the Appalachians. Field relationships at Cheverie indicate thrusting of Tournaisian Horton Group clastics over Viséan Windsor Group carbonates, evaporites, and clastics, a relationship confirmed by the Cheverie #01 well. Mapped relationships to the south indicate that a system of thrusts, here termed the Kennetcook thrust system, climbs upsection to the southeast, becoming a décollement within Windsor Group evaporites. Industry seismic profiles clearly show deformed Windsor Group, and include fold and fault structures indicative of evaporite flow and solution collapse. Below the Windsor Group, half-grabens filled with Horton Group are clearly imaged; offsets at graben-related faults show that these structures were inverted during later shortening. Above the Windsor Group, less deformed rocks of the Pennsylvanian Scotch Village Formation (Cumberland Group) fill minibasins created by the withdrawal or solution of deformed Windsor evaporites. The timing of thrusting is constrained by these relationships and by crosscutting intrusions to a narrow interval around the Mississippian–Pennsylvanian boundary prior to ∼315 Ma. Deformation was probably related to dextral transpression along the former Avalon–Meguma boundary. Depending on how shortening was transmitted to the southeast, up to 1500 km2 of southern mainland Nova Scotia may be underlain by tectonically transported rocks.