The sedimentology of coastal, meromictic Lake A, Ellesmere Island (83°00′N, 75°30′W), was investigated to understand the linkages between the extreme lake environment and its sedimentary features. Four facies were identified within the sedimentary record that represent stages of the lake’s development from a marine embayment to a meromictic lake. Despite low ecosystem productivity, both clastic and biogenic materials contribute substantially, and highly seasonal sedimentation, pervasive ice cover, and anoxia in the saline bottom water (monimolimnion) act to preserve annual sedimentary units (varves) within the upper part of the sedimentary record. Sediment texture is predominantly silt and clay, but the irregular presence of sand indicates past episodes of higher energy stream discharge to the lake. Oxygen incursions into the chemocline likely cause bacteria mortality and provide elemental sulphur for iron sulphides that are deposited in the sediments. Millimetre-scale sedimentary pellets are also a conspicuous feature in the sediments and are interpreted to result from littoral sediment transport by ice-rafting. Many of Lake A’s notable sedimentary features are also evident in other High Arctic meromictic lakes, particularly those on the northern coast of Ellesmere Island. These similarities and the important biogenic component identified in Lake A suggest that processes in these sedimentary environments are more complex than previously thought.