Tropical shallow-water deposits of the Refrath Formation (topmost Lower to lower part of Middle Frasnian) of the Bergisch Gladbach area (Rhenish Massif, Germany) yielded diverse, well-preserved shelly faunas. New collections show that there are in total over 30 brachiopod species, of which the Atrypida, Rhynchonellida, Spiriferida, and Athyridida orders are the most dominant groups. Serial transverse sections show that Pseudoatrypa schroeteri possesses small dental cavities, and their spiralia have a whorl number ranging from 12–13 in ca. 29–30 mm wide specimens to 15–16 in ca. 32–33 mm wide specimens. Desquamatia (Seratrypa) pectinata has slightly more numerous spiralial whorls, from 14–15 in ca. 27 mm wide specimens to 18 in ca. 35 mm wide specimens. A new species, Desquamatia (Seratrypa) refrathensis, is described based on material from the Refrath Formation in Refrath, near Köln (Cologne), east of the Rhine River, Germany. It includes finely ribbed, longer than wide, moderate- to large-sized shells of Desquamatia, which possess tiny dental cavities to nuclei and 20–21 spiralial whorls in ca. 30 mm wide and long specimens.