We present new temperature and precipitation reconstructions for the past 25 000 cal. years BP from across eastern Beringia based on a network of pollen diagrams, an updated modern pollen calibration database, and an improved methodology using the modern analogue technique (MAT). Time series show July temperatures were around 4 °C lower during full glacial and January temperatures were about 2 °C lower than present. Annual temperatures rose beginning around 16 000 cal. years BP, reaching a maximum around 12 000 cal. year BP. The warming was more rapid in southern Beringia. Annual precipitation varied by 250 mm during the past 25 000 cal. years BP. Maps of reconstructed precipitation patterns show increasingly drier conditions since 12 000 cal. years BP. that vary regionally, suggesting Holocene atmospheric circulation changes at multiple time and space scales. Orbitally forced seasonality changes during the late glacial and early Holocene resulted in reversed seasonal temperature reconstructions due to methodological constraints using the MAT and (or) non-analogue conditions. The magnitude of millennial-scale climate variability in this region was greater during the last glacial and late glacial periods than during the past 8000 years.

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