Abstract

A variety of metallic and non-metallic mineral deposit types occur within Archean and Proterozoic rocks in the area encompassing the Lake Nipigon Region Geoscience Initiative. Archean deposit types include Algoma-type banded iron formation-hosted iron (e.g., Lake Nipigon iron range); volcanogenic massive sulphide copper–zinc (e.g., Onaman–Tashota belt); ultramafic intrusion-hosted chromium (e.g., Puddy–Chrome lakes); mafic to ultramafic intrusion-hosted copper–nickel – platinum group element (PGE) (e.g., Lac des Iles); and pegmatite-hosted deposits of rare metals (Li, Ta, Be), uranium, and molybdenum (e.g., Georgia Lake field, Black Sturgeon Lake, and Anderson Lake, respectively). Mesothermal lode gold deposits are prominent in the Beardmore–Geraldton camp. Superior-type iron formation occurs in Paleoproterozoic Gunflint Formation. “Red-bed” copper occurs in Mesoproterozoic Midcontinent Rift-related Osler Group volcanic and interflow sedimentary rocks. Native copper and copper sulphides occur in Mesoproterozoic Sibley Group sedimentary rocks, adjacent to ultramafic intrusions. These mafic to ultramafic intrusions, associated with Midcontinent Rift magmatism, host copper–nickel–PGE deposits (e.g., Seagull, Great Lakes Nickel). Silver-bearing veins occur in Paleoproterozoic Animikie Group sedimentary rocks in proximity to Midcontinent Rift-related mafic intrusions (e.g., Silver Islet, Silver Mountain). Lead–zinc–barite veins, uranium-bearing veins, and amethyst vein and replacement-type deposits may be cogenetic and formed at or near the unconformity between Sibley Group basal sandstone and underlying Archean granitic basement (e.g., Dorion, Black Sturgeon Lake, McTavish Township). The hydrothermal systems that produced all of these veins were probably driven by heat associated with Midcontinent rifting. Many occur in structures related to rift-bounding faults. Iron oxide – copper–gold deposits may occur near the English Bay intrusion.

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