Abstract

The ultra-high-pressure (UHP) Kimi complex (uppermost eastern Rhodope Mountains) is a tectonic mixture of crustal and mantle derived associations. Pressure–temperature (PT) paths and microtextural and geochronological data reveal that crustal and mantle parts juxtaposed against each other at a depth corresponding to ∼15 kbar (1 kbar = 100 MPa) had separate ascend histories. The crustal rocks comprise amphibolitised eclogites, orthogneisses, marbles, and migmatitic pelitic gneisses. The latter document UHP metamorphism within the dehydration-melting range of pelitic gneisses, with maximum PT conditions of >45 kbar at ∼1000 °C, as determined by diamond inclusions in garnet and rutile needle exsolutions in Na-bearing garnet. Decompression was combined with only little cooling before 15 kbar, followed by more significant cooling between 15 and 10 kbar. This PT path probably reflects ascent of UHP rocks within a subduction channel, followed by accretion in the lower crust of a thickened wedge. Although the first ascend phase was probably rapid, the overall time span for UHP metamorphism and final exhumation may have extended over more than 70 Ma. A U–Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) age on zircons of ±149 Ma was suggested to date the UHP metamorphism, whereas Rb–Sr white mica and U–Pb zircon ages from syn-shearing pegmatites of ±65 Ma constrain medium- to low-grade shearing and final exhumation of UHP rocks. Mantle parts consisting of spinel–garnet metaperidotites and garnet pyroxenites reached maximum PT conditions in the garnet-peridotite field at T > 1200 °C and P > 25 kbar. This was associated with plastic flow and followed by severe near isothermal cooling to T < 800 °C at 15 kbar and static annealing. A garnet–clinopyroxene whole-rock Sm–Nd age from a garnet pyroxenite of ±119 Ma probably reflects the age of metamorphic mantle processes (static annealing following the high P/high T strain episode), rather than constraining the age of UHP metamorphism.

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