Abstract

The Manitou Lake area (Kwyjibo and Lac Marmont sectors), located in Quebec’s eastern Grenville Province, contains magnetite-rich deposits with variable morphological, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics. Most Kwyjibo sector deposits are rich in Cu, rare-earth elements (REE), Y, P, F, and Ag and are anomalous in Th, U, Mo, W, Zr, and Au, and Lac Marmont sector deposits are commonly poor in these elements. Deposits occur in or are closely associated with 1175–1168 Ma leucogranite. They contain combinations of magnetite, clinopyroxene, blue–green hornblende, titanite, apatite, fluorite, quartz, biotite, andradite, epidote, albite, hematite, sulfides (chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, molybdenite, sphalerite), ilmenite, allanite, and other REE-bearing minerals. Veins and breccias are common. Most of the magnetite mineralization was preceded by potassic metasomatism (microcline) and was followed by most of the sulfides and radioactive minerals. Nearby sulfide-dominant deposits may be related. The deposits were formed by metasomatic replacement and fracture filling from hydrothermal fluids of variable composition, which were probably channeled in major, active faults. Oxygen-isotope data from magnetite-rich rocks suggest that fluids were predominantly magmatic and (or) metamorphic and that, locally, mixing with cooler meteoric water may have facilitated precipitation of sulfides and rare-metal minerals. Titanites in mineralized rock have been dated at 972 ± 5 Ma, but most magnetite may be older. Mineralization was syn- to post-tectonic and occurred in an orogenic to orogenic-collapse setting. The Cu–REE–Y-rich deposits are similar to iron oxide – copper – gold (IOCG) Olympic Dam type deposits, and copper-and rare-metals-poor occurrences resemble magnetite ± apatite Kiruna-type deposits.

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