New filtering of aeromagnetic images of the Sudbury area indicates the existence of a large, elliptical feature that appears to underlie the deformed Sudbury Structure in the region of the exposed Levack Gneiss Complex, such that the two features have long axes which are significantly orthogonal to one another. A north–south-oriented ellipse appears to be crosscut by that of the Sudbury Structure and does not correspond to known local lithological or structural trends. The magnetic images, combined with existing tectonic, petrological, geothermometric and geobarometric, and geochronological data, are used to suggest the existence of a pre-impact crustal dome in the southernmost Abitibi subprovince, probably related to ca. 2450 Ma rifting and magmatism in the area. This is consistent with existing petrological and tectonic evidence from a variety of sources. Although the doming is itself unrelated to the ca. 1850 Ma Sudbury event, it may have affected the thermal regime existing at the time of impact, which would have profound implications for the subsequent evolution of the Sudbury Igneous Complex.