New sedimentologic, biostratigraphic, and compositional data from a 415-m-thick section of siliciclastic and volcanic strata document Oligocene synthrusting sedimentation south of the McKinley segment of the Denali fault system. Strata of the Colorado Creek basin are presently exposed on the south side of the central Alaska Range in the footwalls of north-dipping thrust faults. New measured sections define a three-part stratigraphy. Lowermost strata consist of a ∼ 30-m-thick unit of marine sandstone and mudstone that contain Late Cretaceous dinoflagellate taxa. The middle unit consists of ∼ 330 m of conglomerate, sandstone, and mudstone interpreted as braided stream and floodplain deposits. This middle unit contains early Oligocene pollen and spore assemblages. The upper unit is 55 m thick and contains lava flows, tuff, and pumice interpreted as the product of subaerial volcanic eruptions. Direct age data are lacking from the upper unit. Compositional data from the middle unit indicate that detritus was derived from sedimentary and igneous source terranes exposed on both the north and south side of the McKinley fault. Matching source lithologies north of the McKinley fault with conglomerate clast types in the Colorado Creek basin implies 30–33 km of maximum post-early Oligocene dextral displacement along the fault. We interpret the Oligocene strata of the Colorado Creek basin as a product of transpressional deformation that produced north-dipping thrust faults associated with strike-slip displacement on the central Denali fault. Our data from the Colorado Creek basin, in combination with previous studies, document a major episode of middle Eocene – late Oligocene synorogenic sedimentation along the Denali fault from British Columbia to southwestern Alaska.