Local preservation of 3.6–3.0 Ga gneisses and widespread isotopic evidence for crust of this age incorporated into younger plutons indicates that the Wyoming Province was a ≥100 000 km2 middle Archean craton, which was modified by late Archean magmatism and tectonism and Proterozoic extension and rifting. On the basis of differences in late Archean histories, the Wyoming Province is subdivided into five subprovinces: three in the Archean core, (1) the Montana metasedimentary province, (2) the Bighorn subprovince, and (3) the Sweetwater subprovince, and two Archean terrains that may be allochthonous to the 3.0 Ga craton, (4) the Sierra Madre – Medicine Bow block, and (5) the Black Hills – Hartville block. A thick, fast lower crustal layer, imaged by Deep Probe, corresponds geographically with the Bighorn subprovince and may be an underplate associated with ca. 2.70 Ga mafic magmatism. The Sweetwater subprovince is characterized by an east–west tectonic grain that was established by three or more temporally related, late Archean, pulses of basin development, shortening, and arc magmatism. This tectonic grain, including the 2.62 Ga Oregon Trail structure, controlled the locations and orientations of Proterozoic rifting and Laramide uplifts. The present-day lithospheric architecture of the Wyoming Province is the result of cumulative processes of crustal growth and tectonic modification; lithospheric contrasts have apparently persisted for billions of years. If there has been any net crustal growth of the Wyoming Province since 3.0 Ga, it has involved a combination of mafic underplating and arc magmatism.