Distribution of facies in the lower half of the Bylot Supergroup suggests overall westward deepening of the Mesoproterozoic Borden Basin. In marked contrast, the upper half of the succession records a reversal in the overall bathymetric trend, such that the eastern portion underwent relative deepening as the west experienced relative shallowing. Strata deposited during this reversal belong to the Victor Bay Formation, a ramp composed predominantly of limestone. Karsting of carbonate strata and development of an angular unconformity in the west contrast with back-stepping and drowning of the ramp in the east, followed by mantling by deep-water limestone, carbonaceous carbonate, and turbidites. Increased accommodation space during this time, via both tectonic subsidence and eustatic sea-level rise, led to a profusion of stromatolite pinnacle reefs and large biostromes. The reversal of basin polarity is best reconciled with development of a distal foreland basin superimposed on the Borden aulacogen. Crustal rethickening and uplift occurred along reactivated basement faults during an eastward-directed compressional event and could be related to thrusting of similar age and vergence in the Coppermine River Group of northwestern Canada.