Abstract

Six modifications to the hinge occur in strophomenoid brachiopods from Anticosti Island: (1) overhanging socket ridges; (2) posterolateral socket ridges along the interarea articulate with grooves on the posterior of teeth; (3) anteromedian dental notches articulate with the crests of socket ridges; (4) dental crenulations on the surfaces of teeth mesh with socket ridges; (5) denticles extend laterally to the cardinal extremities; and (6) the margin of the ventral interarea fits into a long socket along the dorsal interarea forming a lateral tooth. Denticulate hinges and dental notches that typify Silurian and Devonian strophomenids begin in the fauna of the Ellis Bay Formation. Thus the most important interval of strophomenid faunal turnover was at the base of the Gamachian (the base of the Hirnantian) and not at the Ordovician–Silurian boundary. Muscle attachment pads in the delthyrial cavity do not correspond to the positions of either the adductor or diductor muscle scars. Pedicle adjustor muscles in modern brachiopods occupy this position. The round gap between the median fold of the pseudodeltidium and groove on chilidium is proposed as the point of emergence of the pedicle muscle. The tiny foramen, commonly sealed early in growth, is suggested to be part of a neanic water-intake system, active before the growth of the cardinal process in ephebic shells. Once the cardinal process appeared, the foramen was blocked. Recurring types of strophomenid ornamentation, such as posteriorly steepened rugae and checkerboard ornamentation, may have served as a plow to redistribute sediment as the shell was pulled backwards along the pedicle.

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