Abstract

Structural analysis of the Manitouwadge greenstone belt, integrated with detailed mapping and geochronological and petrographic studies, reveals a complex early deformation history that significantly modified the primary distribution of base-metal deposits and alteration zones. The (D3) Manitouwadge synform dominates the map pattern; however, penetrative fabric development and establishment of the tectono-stratigraphy of base-metal deposits mostly predated D3. The D1 Garnet Lake fault, which repeats mineralized horizons within a distinctive lithological sequence, is delineated locally by annealed mylonite. D1 planar fabrics are preserved locally in outcrop and thin section. D2 folding accompanied peak regional metamorphism at upper amphibolite facies. The F2 Agam Lake syncline repeats the volcanic sequence across the southern limb of the Manitouwadge synform. A map-scale F2 sheath fold deforms the Garnet Lake fault. Minor D2 structures include prevalent outcrop-scale folds, locally with sheath geometry, the dominant S2 foliation, and mineral lineations (parallel to fold axes). Northwest-southeast-directed D3 shortening produced the Manitouwadge synform and related regional folds without extensive penetrative fabric development. Flexural slip folding is evident in the inner hinge of the synform where rocks of differing competency are interlayered. Higher strain, stronger fabric development, and a component of simple shear were preferentially partitioned to fold limbs. Relative pre-D3 structural geometries in the inner hinge region of the Manitouwadge synform are not significantly complicated by D3 and younger deformation. Retrodeformation of the mineralized sequence shows systematic stratigraphic patterns in iron formation types, stacked massive sulphide orebodies, and alteration types that can be applied to exploration models.

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