The landscape of northeastern Axel Heiberg Island records an erosional history since the Neogene, whereas the glacial and sea-level history relate to Late Wisconsinan glaciation. During the last glacial maximum northeastern Axel Heiberg Island was covered by glaciers emanating from local and regional sources. Local ice caps expanded from highlands on Axel Heiberg Island across the coastal slope. A trunk glacier flowed northward out of Eureka and Flat sounds into Nansen Sound and reached northernmost Axel Heiberg Island. Radiocarbon ages on marine shells suggest that the last glacial maximum was attained along the coast after 29 ka BP and extensive deglaciation was taking place by 10.3 ka BP. The postglacial marine limit rises continuously from 78 m above sea level near the entrance to Nansen Sound to 158 m above sea level at the mouth of Eureka Sound, showing greatest glacioisostatic loading to the south.

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