Landscape analysis, mapping, sedimentology, shallow geophysics, and borehole data are integrated to better understand the complex landform-sediment geometries and event sequences of the Oak Ridges Moraine, southern Ontario. A model for the origin of the Oak Ridges Moraine is based on the recognition that the moraine is built on a high-relief, erosional surface (unconformity) consisting of drumlin uplands and a network of deep, steep-walled, interconnected valleys (tunnel channels). The development of the moraine is thought to have occurred in four stages: I, subglacial sedimentation; II, subaqueous fan sedimentation; III, fan to delta sedimentation; IV, ice-marginal sedimentation. The model traces the transition from subglacial to proglacial conditions during moraine formation and examines the order and timing of sedimentation. It is thought that the early stages of moraine construction are better exposed in the east; in the west, these stages are buried by later stages.

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