The foredune, in this cool-temperate, sediment-abundant, relatively high wind and wave energy environment, is generally a single ridge with a mean height of 5.1 m (max. 11.4 m) and width of 25–35 m. Pioneer vegetation is dominated by Ammophila breviligulata. Four foredune types were identified: scarped, scarped with blowouts, scarped with incipient foredune, and nonscarped, the first being the most common, occupying more than 50% of the shoreline. Foredune erosion and retreat is occurring at an average rate of 0.8 m∙a−1. The marked differences in dune character between the west and east coasts of the islands are related to differences in wave energy and shoreline dissipativeness. The higher energy west coast exhibits more dynamic dunes with more frequent blowouts, which may develop into parabolic forms.

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