Abstract

Structural analyses of folded volcano-sedimentary basins rely heavily on the identification and use of way-up structures. These structures are more numerous and widespread in sedimentary rocks than in volcanic rocks. Structural models for such basins can therefore be biased by this fact. The Caldwell Group of the Quebec Appalachians is a folded volcano-sedimentary basin bounded bay major faults. It contains locally abundant basalt-rich bands. Near Lac-Etchemin, way-up in basalt flows is determined by pillow shelves that reflect paleohorizontal planes. The strike and dip of these shelf structures were measured and plotted on stereographic projections. Field evidence and the interpretation of stereographic projections indicate that the basalt-rich bands form open folds that plunge gently to the southwest. However, sandstone-rich bands form tight folds with undulating hinge lines (sheath-like). During initial folding, the basalt formed competent bands with limited aerial extent that were fractured by synthetic and antithetic faults rather than folded. The basalt slivers maintained a near-horizontal attitude while adjacent sedimentary rocks were folded and faulted. Further shortening tightened folds in the sediment-rich bands while producing open folds in slivers of basaltic rocks.

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