Cenozoic volcanic rocks outcrop in the central portion of the Loei–Phetchabun volcanic belt in central Thailand in the Lop Buri area. The volcanic rocks range in composition from basalt to high-silica rhyolite. In general, the volcanic rocks decrease in age from south to north. The oldest rocks studied are 55–57 Ma rhyolites that are isotopically and geochemically distinct from younger (13–24 Ma) rhyolites that occur farther north. Intermediate rocks (andesite and dacite) are less voluminous than rhyolite. Basalt occurs in the central and northern parts of the area and ranges in composition from olivine tholeiites to nepheline normative alkali basalts. The isotopic, major, and trace element compositions of the andesites, dacites, and younger rhyolites are consistent with an origin for these rocks by variable degrees of partial melting of metabasaltic crustal rocks, themselves derived from a depleted mantle source at approximately 530 ± 100 Ma. The apparent extent of partial melting of metabasalt increases from rhyolite to andesite. The isotopic and trace element systematics of the basalts are consistent with a refertilized depleted mantle source with characteristics of a mixture of normal mid-ocean ridge basalt source mantle and enriched mantle II type mantle.

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