An ultramafic lamprophyre sill and dikes, and an olivine–melilite-rich dike rock intrude Lower to Middle Devonian sediments and low- to high-grade Archean metamorphic rocks on the west bank of the Abitibi River, Coral Rapids, Ontario. Although previously considered to be kimberlitic, all these rocks contain olivine + clinopyroxene + phlogopite ± melilite, and hence are ultramafic alkaline rocks. The ultramafic lamprophyre can be distinguished from the dike by its lower SiO2, Na2O, Al2O3, and higher MgO and FeO. In contrast the olivine–melilite dike rock has a more uniform composition, characteristically contains melilite, and has higher Cr and Ni contents. Enriched light rare earth element (LREE) chondrite-normalized patterns are similar for all rocks.Olivine, clinopyroxene, and phlogopite have Mg# (Mg# = 100 Mg/(Mg + Fe) mol) typical of minerals in primitive alkaline rocks. Melilite composition is similar to that of igneous melilites. Phlogopites in all rock types are enriched in Ba and F and the degree of enrichment is distinct for each rock type. Accessory minerals include apatite, carbonates, chlorite, sericite, and sodalite (only in the olivine–melilite-bearing rock).The mineralogy and chemistry of the Coral Rapids rocks suggest that they are derived from a primitive olivine melilitite magma that may have evolved by fractionation of small amounts of olivine and clinopyroxene to form these alkaline ultramafic magmas.Xenoliths in the ultramafic lamprophyre sill and in lesser abundance in the olivine–melilite dike rock include olivine, phlogopite, and clinopyroxene-rich mantle-derived assemblages. The similarity between these xenoliths and their host rocks at Coral Rapids and those from southwest Uganda and West Eifel, Germany, suggests that the Coral Rapids rocks may be derived from magmas that originated from metasomatized mantle sources.