New specimens of caenagnathid theropods are described from the Judith River Formation (Campanian) of southern Alberta, the Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian) of South Dakota, and the Bissekty Formation (Turonian) of Uzbekistan. With the exception of the Hell Creek specimen, and a vertebra from Alberta, all are from the symphysial regions of the lower jaws. Caenagnathids are rare and poorly known animals, and the described fossils preserve heretofore unknown features, including vascular grooves and foramina in the symphysial region, and the pattern of overlapping sutures between jaw elements. Most of the new specimens are different from the holotype of Caenagnathus collinsi Sternberg and may represent the second described species, Caenagnathus sternbergi. The two jaws from the Bissekty Formation are the first oviraptorosaurian jaws described from Uzbekistan and represent a new genus and species anatomically closer to Caenagnathus than to central Asian forms like Oviraptor, Conchoraptor and Ingenia. There are at least five characters that distinguish caenagnathid and oviraptorid jaws, but it is concluded that the length of the symphysial region must be used with caution. Jaw anatomy supports the idea that oviraptorids were well adapted for eating eggs, although their diet was probably not restricted to one food type.