Paleoflow data have been compiled for Late Carboniferous (late Westphalian A) to Early Permian alluvial deposits over a large area of Atlantic Canada. The data, which include more than 36 000 measurements of large-scale trough cross-strata, indicate a predominantly northeasterly paleoflow, and suggest that a major source area lay to the southwest of the region throughout the 30 Ma period represented. Uplands within the basin deflected paleoflow and probably formed important local drainage and sediment sources. Tectonostratigraphic analysis suggests that the drainage originated in the fold-and-thrust belt of the central Appalachians and parts of the northern Appalachians. Rivers probably followed northeast-oriented structural lineaments through the older Acadian mountains of the northern Appalachians. A considerable proportion of the rising orogen's drainage, and probably detritus, may have traversed basins along the strike of the mountain belt, a situation analogous to that of the modern Himalayas.