Abstract

Four distinct granitic series developed during the evolution of the Archean Abitibi Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ): (1) A minor synvolcanic tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) series was emplaced at ~2700 Ma, which has extremely low K2O (<1.5 wt.%), Rb (<50 ppm), and Sr (<200 ppm), higher Nb, Y, and Sc, flat rare-earth-element (REE) patterns, and negative Eu anomalies. (2) A voluminous tonalite – granodiorite – granite – quartz monzonite (TGGM) series developed syntectonically at ~2695–2685 Ma, and displays low K2O (1–3 wt.%), Rb (10–50 ppm), Ba (<1000 ppm), and U, enhanced Sr, depletion of Ta, Nb, and Ti, and strongly fractionated REE patterns (La/Ybn = 49–21). (3) A late-tectonic quartz syenite – quartz monzonite – granite (SMG) series was emplaced from ~2685 to 2675 Ma, and is grossly similar to the TGGM but has lower CaO/(K2O + Na2O) and greater concentrations of Rb, Ba, Th, and U. (4) A late-tectonic to posttectonic alkali feldspar syenite – alkali feldspar quartz syenite (SS) series was emplaced from 2680 to 2670 Ma, and occurs along regional strike-slip structures. The primitive rocks (SiO2 ≤ 65 wt.%) exhibit coenrichment of large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and mafic elements (Cr, Co, and Ni) and strongly fractionated REE patterns, whereas evolved phases (SiO2 ≥ 65 wt.%) display lower contents of compatible and incompatible elements stemming from differentiation.In the adjacent Pontiac Subprovince and the Lacorne block within the SVZ, two granitic series predominate: (1) A syntectonic to late-tectonic monzodiorite–monzonite–granodiorite–syenite (MMGS) series (2690–2670 Ma) is comparable to the Abitibi SMG and SS series in most major-element, LILE, and REE contents but is distinguished by high MgO contents, extremely high Ba/Th ratios, and coenrichment of Cr, Co, and Ni with light rare-earth elements (LREE), Li, and Cs. (2) A garnet–muscovite–granite (GMG) series (2644 ± 13 Ma) displays K2O/Na2O ≥ 1, restricted SiO2 range (69–75 wt.%), pronounced enrichments of Rb, Li, Cs, Ta, Nb, Th, and U, and moderately fractionated REE's (La/Ybn = 16–0.9), with prominent negative Eu anomalies.The synvolcanic TTG series is interpreted to have formed by differentiation of low-K mafic magmas of the Blake River Group type in suprasubduction-zone environments. Geochemical compositions of the TGGM, SGM, SS, and MMGS series resemble those of Phanerozoic granitoids in island-arc settings and reflect a transition from partial melting of the subducted or subcreted slab to melting of the metasomatized depleted mantle wedge assisted by LILE- and LREE-enriched fluids released from the slab. The GMG, which formed by partial melting of the Pontiac metasediments when the Pontiac Sub-province collided with and underthrust the Abitibi SVZ at ~2670 Ma, is similar to Himalayan collisional leucogranites.

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